Survival time: 1-2 minutes
Beheading machine, so called from the French physicist Joseph-Ignace de Guillotin’s name, who proposed its adoption in 1789: as decapitation was considered the most humane and less painful execution method, Guillotin suggested the construction of an apposite machine.
It consists of two beams hoisted vertically, sunken in the middle and joined in the top by a crossbar, and of an oblique blade, tied with a rope to the crossbar. The sentenced puts his neck in a pillory-like structure which the blade will pass through; when the rope is released, the blade slides along the beams and falls onto the sentenced’s neck, cutting his head off, and the latter ends up in a basket placed in front of the guillotine.
It was heavily used during the French revolution.